(no subject)

My language is posted on the Conlangs page... now with cuts so as to stop annoying people! :-D I posted it late on Thursday night. If anyone can tell me how to get the IPA symbols to look right, I'd appreciate it though.

A Short Introduction to hPeiput

An Introduction to huPeiput

 

Phonetics

 

The phonetic inventory of huPeiput can be divided into three broad groups of phonemes – main consonants, auxiliary consonants, and vowels – each of which function differently in the language.  Perhaps the most distinguishing feature of huPeiput is the intimate link between its phonemes and its syntax and morphology.

 

 

Main Consonants all fall within three consonant families: the p family, the k family, and the t family.  In principle, each family consists of one of these unvoiced plosives along with its voiced plosive, unvoiced fricative, voiced fricative, and voiced nasal counterparts.  Note, however, that this grouping has been tweaked a bit for aesthetic purposes, so in several places it does not fall in perfect accordance with formal phonology.

Main consonant grouping is a crucial aspect of huPeiput syntax.  Different consonants in the same family are never lexically contrastive, but they are syntactically contrastive.  For example, changing a p to a b will not change the meaning of a word, but it will change the function of that word in its sentence.  Specifically, voicing/stopping/nasality of main consonants serve to indicate whether a word is a subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, or modifier.  (This will be clearer later.)

 

Subject            Verb                Direct Object              Indirect Object              Modifier     

p                      b                                  f                                   v                                  m

k                      g                                  x                                  G                                 N

t                       d                                  T                                  D                                 n

 

These family relations are distinctly represented in huPeiput’s orthography (which, owing to my unfortunate computer skills, does not yet exist anywhere outside my notebook).  That is, for these 15 phonemes there are only three basic symbols – one per family.  Symbols within the family are distinguished only by diacritical marks – a horizontal underline for voicing, a vertical slash for fricatives, and a sort of umlaut for nasals.

 

 

Auxiliary Consonants are those that do not affect the syntax of the language, but they do have morphological functions.  The consonants

s                                  z                                   S                                  Z

are used to indicate such things as word senses and agency versus subjecthood.  For example, these consonants can be added to a word to distinguish a metaphorical or figurative use from a literal one.  Similarly applied, the sounds      r        and      l

govern verbal tense and aspect.

 

 

Vowels are a much simpler matter in huPeiput, and their roles and behavior in the language are nothing that would be unfamiliar to English speakers.  There is no necessary classification among vowels, and any two distinct vowels are always lexically contrastive.  Vowels are the backbone of every lexeme, as they are its only components that never change.  HuPeiput words commonly use the monophthongs

u                                  i                                   o

as well as the diphthongs      ei    and        ai.   Each of these vowels (as well as the @ sound, which is less commonly used) has its own orthographic character and is almost always pronounced the same way regardless of context.  The only exception is that the two diphthongs may be shortened to e and a when they appear in word affixes, but never within the word itself.  

 

HuPeiput also uses the glottal fricative h in all articles (such as the hu in huPeiput), but rather than a consonantal phoneme it is regarded as a feature of the vowel it precedes.  Orthographically, for example, hu is recorded like the sound u but with a diacritical to mark aspiration.

 

 

The base of every word, regardless of its part of speech, is of the form CVCVC (let C refer specifically to main consonants, and c stand for auxiliaries).  Auxiliary consonants can be inserted in certain places, namely C[c]V[c]C[c]V[c]C, where brackets represent a place of permissible insertion.  For certain verbal moods, an extra VC segment can be added in the middle to the effect that it forms a “parabolic” syllable – so patuk could be made into p@paituk, pait@tuk, or paituk@k.  This is to maintain an important rule that every word must have exactly three main consonants.  Words can be augmented on the outside only in two cases.  Where appropriate, articles appear as aspirated vowels at the beginnings of words, making them (h)VCVCVC.  Number is expressed in various suffixes, all of the form VcV, so when number is indicated a word can take on the form CVCVCVcV.

The inflection of the main consonants within words presents all one needs to know about huPeiput syntax. 

 

Sample Phrases

haxeitip giTaig bodud hukitsaik.  hopaipug dod@deig.

(5art.+[DSS]glass) ([VDV]eat)  ([VVV]can) (1art.+[SS{s}S]eat{thing that eats}).  (3art.+[SSV]action) ([VV{@V}V]harm{negated}).

“This eater can eat glass.  That action does not harm.”

“I can eat glass.  It does not hurt me.”

 

huvaiDuGzuru.

(1art.+[III]hand+{ordinal}one)

“(To/from/by/etc.)[like a dative case] this right hand.”

Hello.”

 

huvaiDuGziri.

(1art.+[III]hand+{ordinal}two)

“(To/from/by/etc.)[like dative case] this left hand.”

“Goodbye.”

 

huGeiviDiri.

(3art.+[III]knee+two)

“(To/from/by/etc.)[like dative case] these knees.”

“Thank you.”

 

higaixit dodeik!

(2art.+[VDS]heart) ([VVS]harm)

“For that (addressed) heart to be harmed [whole phrase is infinitive]!”

“Fuck you!”

 

hopotsaitala piNeitsuru bodlaid fiNeiTsuru.

(3art.+[SSS]be-true[thing that is true]+<10) ([SMS]finger+{ordinal}one)

([VV{l}V]be-true{cause to be true}) ([DMD]finger+{ordinal}one)

“Those true-things, on the first finger, make-true the first finger.”

“Those truths make themselves true.”

“We hold these truths to be self-evident.”

(no subject)

An Introduction to huPeiput

Phonetics

The phonetic inventory of huPeiput can be divided into three broad groups of phonemes – main consonants, auxiliary consonants, and vowels – each of which function differently in the language. Perhaps the most distinguishing feature of huPeiput is the intimate link between its phonemes and its syntax and morphology.


Main Consonants all fall within three consonant families: the p family, the k family, and the t family. In principle, each family consists of one of these unvoiced plosives along with its voiced plosive, unvoiced fricative, voiced fricative, and voiced nasal counterparts. Note, however, that this grouping has been tweaked a bit for aesthetic purposes, so in several places it does not fall in perfect accordance with formal phonology.
Main consonant grouping is a crucial aspect of huPeiput syntax. Different consonants in the same family are never lexically contrastive, but they are syntactically contrastive. For example, changing a p to a b will not change the meaning of a word, but it will change the function of that word in its sentence. Specifically, voicing/stopping/nasality of main consonants serve to indicate whether a word is a subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, or modifier. (This will be clearer later.)

Subject                  Verb          Direct Object                  Indirect Object                 Modifier
p                                b                       f                                           v                                m
k                                g                       x                                          G                                N
t                                 d                       T                                         D                                 n

These family relations are distinctly represented in huPeiput’s orthography (which, owing to my unfortunate computer skills, does not yet exist anywhere outside my notebook). That is, for these 15 phonemes there are only three basic symbols – one per family. Symbols within the family are distinguished only by diacritical marks – a horizontal underline for voicing, a vertical slash for fricatives, and a sort of umlaut for nasals.


Auxiliary Consonants are those that do not affect the syntax of the language, but they do have morphological functions. The consonants
           s                 z                           S                Z
are used to indicate such things as word senses and agency versus subjecthood. For example, these consonants can be added to a word to distinguish a metaphorical or figurative use from a literal one. Similarly applied, the sounds r and l
govern verbal tense and aspect.


Vowels are a much simpler matter in huPeiput, and their roles and behavior in the language are nothing that would be unfamiliar to English speakers. There is no necessary classification among vowels, and any two distinct vowels are always lexically contrastive. Vowels are the backbone of every lexeme, as they are its only components that never change. HuPeiput words commonly use the monophthongs
u i o
as well as the diphthongs ei and ai. Each of these vowels (as well as the @ sound, which is less commonly used) has its own orthographic character and is almost always pronounced the same way regardless of context. The only exception is that the two diphthongs may be shortened to e and a when they appear in word affixes, but never within the word itself.

HuPeiput also uses the glottal fricative h in all articles (such as the hu in huPeiput), but rather than a consonantal phoneme it is regarded as a feature of the vowel it precedes. Orthographically, for example, hu is recorded like the sound u but with a diacritical to mark aspiration.


The base of every word, regardless of its part of speech, is of the form CVCVC (let C refer specifically to main consonants, and c stand for auxiliaries). Auxiliary consonants can be inserted in certain places, namely C[c]V[c]C[c]V[c]C, where brackets represent a place of permissible insertion. For certain verbal moods, an extra VC segment can be added in the middle to the effect that it forms a “parabolic” syllable – so patuk could be made into p@paituk, pait@tuk, or paituk@k. This is to maintain an important rule that every word must have exactly three main consonants. Words can be augmented on the outside only in two cases. Where appropriate, articles appear as aspirated vowels at the beginnings of words, making them (h)VCVCVC. Number is expressed in various suffixes, all of the form VcV, so when number is indicated a word can take on the form CVCVCVcV.

The inflection of the main consonants within words presents all one needs to know about huPeiput syntax.

Sample Phrases
haxeitip giTaig bodud hukitsaik. hopaipug dod@deig.
(5art.+[DSS]glass) ([VDV]eat) ([VVV]can) (1art.+[SS{s}S]eat{thing that eats}). (3art.+[SSV]action) ([VV{@V}V]harm{negated}).
“This eater can eat glass. That action does not harm.”
“I can eat glass. It does not hurt me.”

huvaiDuGzuru.
(1art.+[III]hand+{ordinal}one)
“(To/from/by/etc.)[like a dative case] this right hand.”
“Hello.”

huvaiDuGziri.
(1art.+[III]hand+{ordinal}two)
“(To/from/by/etc.)[like dative case] this left hand.”
“Goodbye.”

huGeiviDiri.
(3art.+[III]knee+two)
“(To/from/by/etc.)[like dative case] these knees.”
“Thank you.”

higaixit dodeik!
(2art.+[VDS]heart) ([VVS]harm)
“For that (addressed) heart to be harmed [whole phrase is infinitive]!”
“Fuck you!”

hopotsaitala piNeitsuru bodlaid fiNeiTsuru.
(3art.+[SSS]be-true[thing that is true]+<10) ([SMS]finger+{ordinal}one)
([VV{l}V]be-true{cause to be true}) ([DMD]finger+{ordinal}one)
“Those true-things, on the first finger, make-true the first finger.”
“Those truths make themselves true.”
“We hold these truths to be self-evident.”
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  • saizai

Class language so far

Code name: Scratch - [skr&t_S]

Babel 1

krɛʃ ðɛʙrik krɛt͡s çikθamut ʒik t͡ʃæɣeʃ qɯ ðræk
kɹɛʃ ðɛʙik krɛt͡s çikθamut ʒik t͡ʃæɣeʃ qɯ ðɹæk.

krES DEB\rik krEt_s CikTamut Zik t_S&GeS qM Dr&k
kr\ES DEB\ik krEt_s CikTamut Zik t_S&GeS qM Dr\&k.
long-ago inhabited-place in-all people next-to language 1-EMPH CLASS(lang)
Long ago, people everywhere had ONE language.

Babel 2a

ɯp̚ loːj tæʙɹ̩ riuʘɫ̩ t͡ʃakɛʃ d͡ʒaɹ
ɯp loːj tæʙ-ɹ̩ riuʘ-ɫ̩ t͡ʃakɛʃ d͡ʒaɹ.

Mp_} lo:j t&B\r\= riuO\5= t_SakES d_Zar\
Mp lo:j t&B\-r\= riuO\-5= t_SakES d_Zar\.
sometime-later Lo!-EMPH 3-pl-far-anim-ERG mountain-ABS moonrise push-NONDIR
And then, LO!, Moonrise Mountain pushed out / scattered (the) people.

Babel 2b

tæʙɹ̩ ʃɪnaɹɫ̩ təm qir
tæʙ-ɹ̩ ʃɪnaɹ-ɫ̩ təm qir.

t&B\r\= SInar\5= t@m qir
t&B\-r\= SInar\-5= t@m qir.
3-pl-far-anim-ERG Shinar-ABS CLASS(flat & wide) pull-DIR
Shinar pulled the people towards itself.

Babel 2c

tɔsɹ̩ tæʙɫ̩ ðɛt͡s
tɔs-ɹ̩ tæʙ-ɫ̩ ðɛt͡s.

tOsr\= t&B5= DEt_s
tOs-r\= t&B-5= DEt_s.
3-sg-far-inanim-ERG 3-pl-far-anim-ABS inhabit
They inhabited it.


Syntax:
S := (TIME) Obj-ERG Subj-ABS Verb
S := (TIME) LocP NP
ERG := -r\=
ABS := -5=
LocP := AdvP Obj LocArticle
NP := #P
NP := N CLASS (semi-adjectival use)
NP := N Adj
#P := N_a # CLASS_a

Unusual vocab:
push: q&r (directional) / d_Zar\ (non-directional)
pull: qir (dir) / d_Zur\ (non-dir)
- "directional" vs not as in gunshot or grab-and-pull vs. explosion or spherical magnet

Pronouns are in form: CVC
first C = person
1st p
2nd k
3rd t

second C = #
1(sg) s
2(dl) T
3(tr) D
4+(pl) B\

vowel height = psychological/physical distance (high = close / low = far)
- exception: for 1st person dl/tr/pl, near = inclusive-"we" and far = exclusive-"we"

vowel backness = animacy (front = animate / back = inanimate)


Classifiers:
t@m - flat, wide things
Dr\&k - languages, cultures, etc


Approx. phonemic inventory:
Vowels: eʲ ɪ i ɛ æ u ə a
e_j I i E & u @ a
Consonants: ç ɣ {ɹ r} {ʙ ʘ} m k q ʃ ʒ θ ð t͡s t͡ʃ
C G {r\ r} {B O\} m k q S Z T D t_s t_S
- {A B C D} indicates a phoneme, with A the prime and B... the variants

Phonotactic: (C)(C)V(C), unspecified restrictions on the onset cluster; continuants

allowed as syllabic nuclei

Sound change rules:
/r\/ -> [r] / _ V
/B\/ -> [O\] / _ #
/ / -> [r] / B_V
/vl stop/ -> [vl stop_}] / _ EMPH <- semantically-conditioned!

Example sentence: ræ kra çɛʃ. t͡suk ʙ kiɹ t͡sɛʘ t͡ʃiʘ ðɪʃkaɹ kçiç krɛ t͡sut͡s.
r& kra CES. t_suk B\ kir/ t_sEO\ t_SiO\ DISkar\ kCiC krE t_sut_s.

Approx. translation: AAAAH! DRAGON!

Meanings:
B - exclamation / morpheme (?); indicates surprise or emphasis of some kind; emphasizes

previous word
t_SiO\ - dragon
DISkar - a particular dragon named [DISkar]
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  • saizai

Class #1 - on archive.org too now

http://www.archive.org/details/Conlangs06-1-full

Future episodes will be under the same series (i.e.http://www.archive.org/details/Conlangs06-2-full etc.) - or just keyword search 'conlangs'.

The only format I uploaded is the original .wmv rip (~350MB, 720x480 NTSC). I tried reencoding to DivX and actually got a much higher file size... so unless someone specifically can use neither this NOR the Google video one (flash based), that's all I'm going to bother with.

Enjoy.
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  • saizai

Class 1 writings

Code name: Scratch - [skr&t_S]

Phonetic inventory so far (in Conlangs-extended X-Sampa):
Vowels: e_j I i E & u @ a
Consonants: C G {r\ r} {B O\} m k q S Z T D t_s t_S
- {A B C D} indicates a phoneme, with A the prime and B... the variants

Phonotactic: (C)(C)V(C), unspecified restrictions on the onset cluster

Sound change rules:
/r\/ -> [r] / _ V
/B/ -> [O\] / _ #

Example sentence:
r& kra CES. t_suk B kir/ t_sEO\ t_SiO\ DISkar\ kCiC krE t_sut_s.

Meanings:
B - exclamation / morpheme (?); indicates surprise or emphasis of some kind; emphasizes previous word
t_SiO\ - dragon
TISkar - a particular dragon named [TISkar]